Confucian Analects Chapter 11
The Master said, "The men of former times in the matters of ceremonies and music were rustics, it is said, while the men of these latter times, in ceremonies and music, are accomplished gentlemen.
"If I have occasion to use those things, I follow the men of former times."
The Master said, "Of those who were with me in Ch‘an and Ts‘ai, there are none to be found to enter my door."
Distinguished for their virtuous principles and practice, there were Yen Yuan, Min Tsze-ch‘ien, Zan Po-niu, and Chung-kung; for their ability in speech, Tsai Wo and Tsze-kung; for their administrative talents, Zan Yu and Chi Lu; for their literary acquirements, Tsze-yu and Tsze-hsia.
The Master said, "Hui gives me no assistance. There is nothing that I say in which he does not delight."
The Master said, "Filial indeed is Min Tsze-ch‘ien! Other people say nothing of him different from the report of his parents and brothers."
Nan Yung was frequently repeating the lines about a white scepter stone. Confucius gave him the daughter of his elder brother to wife.
Chi K‘ang asked which of the disciples loved to learn. Confucius replied to him, "There was Yen Hui; he loved to learn. Unfortunately his appointed time was short, and he died. Now there is no one who loves to learn, as he did."
When Yen Yuan died, Yen Lu begged the carriage of the Master to sell and get an outer shell for his son‘s coffin.
The Master said, "Every one calls his son his son, whether he has talents or has not talents. There was Li; when he died, he had a coffin but no outer shell. I would not walk on foot to get a shell for him, because, having followed in the rear of the great officers, it was not proper that I should walk on foot."
When Yen Yuan died, the Master said, "Alas! Heaven is destroying me! Heaven is destroying me!"
When Yen Yuan died, the Master bewailed him exceedingly, and the disciples who were with him said, "Master, your grief is excessive!"
"Is it excessive?" said he. "If I am not to mourn bitterly for this man, for whom should I mourn?"
When Yen Yuan died, the disciples wished to give him a great funeral, and the Master said, "You may not do so."
The disciples did bury him in great style. The Master said, "Hui behaved towards me as his father. I have not
been able to treat him as my son. The fault is not mine; it belongs to you, O disciples."
Chi Lu asked about serving the spirits of the dead. The Master said, "While you are not able to serve men, how can you serve their spirits?" Chi Lu added, "I venture to ask about death?" He was answered, "While you do not know life, how can you know about death?"
The disciple Min was standing by his side, looking bland and precise; Tsze-lu, looking bold and soldierly; Zan Yu and Tsze-kung, with a free and straightforward manner. The Master was pleased.
He said, "Yu, there!-he will not die a natural death." Some parties in Lu were going to take down and rebuild the Long
Min Tsze-ch‘ien said, "Suppose it were to be repaired after its old style;-why must it be altered and made anew?"
The Master said, "This man seldom speaks; when he does, he is sure to hit the point."
The Master said, "What has the lute of Yu to do in my door?" The other disciples began not to respect Tszelu. The Master said,
"Yu has ascended to the hall, though he has not yet passed into the inner apartments."
Tsze-kung asked which of the two, Shih or Shang, was the superior. The Master said, "Shih goes beyond the due mean, and Shang does not come up to it."
"Then," said Tsze-kung, "the superiority is with Shih, I suppose." The Master said, "To go beyond is as wrong as to fall short." The head of the Chi family was richer than the duke of Chau had
been, and yet Ch‘iu collected his imposts for him, and increased his wealth.
The Master said, "He is no disciple of mine. My little children, beat the drum and assail him."
Ch‘ai is simple. Shan is dull. Shih is specious. Yu is coarse. The Master said, "There is Hui! He has nearly attained to perfect
virtue. He is often in want.
"Ts‘ze does not acquiesce in the appointments of Heaven, and his goods are increased by him. Yet his judgments are often correct."
Tsze-chang asked what were the characteristics of the good man. The Master said, "He does not tread in the footsteps of others, but moreover, he does not enter the chamber of the sage."
The Master said, "If, because a man‘s discourse appears solid and sincere, we allow him to be a good man, is he really a superior man? or is his gravity only in appearance?"
Tsze-lu asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard. The Master said, "There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted;-why should you act on that principle of immediately carrying into practice what you hear?" Zan Yu asked the same, whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard, and the Master answered, "Immediately carry into practice what you hear." Kung-hsi Hwa said, "Yu asked whether he should carry immediately into practice what he heard, and you said, ‘There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted.‘ Ch‘iu asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard, and you said, ‘Carry it immediately into practice.‘ I, Ch‘ih, am perplexed, and venture to ask you for an explanation." The Master said, "Ch‘iu is retiring and slow; therefore I urged him forward. Yu has more than his own share of energy; therefore I kept him back."
The Master was put in fear in K‘wang and Yen Yuan fell behind. The Master, on his rejoining him, said, "I thought you had died." Hui replied, "While you were alive, how should I presume to die?"
Chi Tsze-zan asked whether Chung Yu and Zan Ch‘iu could be called great ministers.
The Master said, "I thought you would ask about some extraordinary individuals, and you only ask about Yu and Ch‘iu!
"What is called a great minister, is one who serves his prince according to what is right, and when he finds he cannot do so, retires.
"Now, as to Yu and Ch‘iu, they may be called ordinary ministers." Tsze-zan said, "Then they will always follow their chief;-win they?" The Master said, "In an act of parricide or regicide, they would not
Tsze-lu got Tsze-kao appointed governor of Pi. The Master said, "You are injuring a man‘s son." Tsze-lu said, "There are, there, common people and officers; there
are the altars of the spirits of the land and grain. Why must one read books before he can be considered to have learned?"
The Master said, "It is on this account that I hate your glib-tongued people."
Tsze-lu, Tsang Hsi, Zan Yu, and Kunghsi Hwa were sitting by the Master.
He said to them, "Though I am a day or so older than you, do not think of that.
"From day to day you are saying, ‘We are not known.‘ If some ruler were to know you, what would you like to do?"
Tsze-lu hastily and lightly replied, "Suppose the case of a state of ten thousand chariots; let it be straitened between other large cities; let it be suffering from invading armies; and to this let there be added a famine in corn and in all vegetables:-if I were intrusted with the government of it, in three years‘ time I could make the people to be bold, and to recognize the rules of righteous conduct." The Master smiled at him.
Turning to Yen Yu, he said, "Ch‘iu, what are your wishes?" Ch‘iu replied, "Suppose a state of sixty or seventy li square, or one of fifty or sixty, and let me have the government of it;-in three years‘ time, I could make plenty to abound among the people. As to teaching them the principles of propriety, and music, I must wait for the rise of a superior man to do that."
"What are your wishes, Ch‘ih," said the Master next to Kung-hsi Hwa. Ch‘ih replied, "I do not say that my ability extends to these things, but I should wish to learn them. At the services of the ancestral temple, and at the audiences of the princes with the sovereign, I should like, dressed in the dark square-made robe and the black linen cap, to act as a small assistant."
Last of all, the Master asked Tsang Hsi, "Tien, what are your wishes?" Tien, pausing as he was playing on his lute, while it was yet twanging, laid the instrument aside, and "My wishes," he said, "are different from the cherished purposes of these three gentlemen." "What harm is there in that?" said the Master; "do you also, as well as they, speak out your wishes." Tien then said, "In this, the last month of spring, with the dress of the season all complete, along with five or six young men who have assumed the cap, and six or seven boys, I would wash in the I, enjoy the breeze among the rain altars, and return home singing." The Master heaved a sigh and said, "I give my approval to Tien."
The three others having gone out, Tsang Hsi remained behind, and said, "What do you think of the words of these three friends?" The Master replied, "They simply told each one his wishes."
Hsi pursued, "Master, why did you smile at Yu?" He was answered, "The management of a state demands the rules of
propriety. His words were not humble; therefore I smiled at him."
Hsi again said, "But was it not a state which Ch‘iu proposed for himself?" The reply was, "Yes; did you ever see a territory of sixty or seventy li or one of fifty or sixty, which was not a state?"
Once more, Hsi inquired, "And was it not a state which Ch‘ih proposed for himself?" The Master again replied, "Yes; who but princes have to do with ancestral temples, and with audiences but the sovereign? If Ch‘ih were to be a small assistant in these services, who could be a great one?
11·22 子路问：“闻斯行诸？”子曰：“有父兄在，如之何其闻斯行之？”冉有问：“闻斯行诸？”子曰：“闻斯行之。”公西华曰：“由也问闻斯行诸，子曰， ‘有父兄在’；求也问闻斯行诸，子曰，‘闻斯行之’。赤也惑，敢问。”子曰：“求也退，故进之；由也兼人，故退之。”
11·26 子路、曾皙、冉有、公西华侍坐。子曰：“以吾一日长乎尔，毋吾以也。居则曰：‘不吾知也！’如或知尔，则何以哉？”子路率尔 而对曰：“千乘之国，摄乎大国之间，加之以师旅，因之以饥馑，由也为之，比及三年，可使有勇，且知方也。”夫子哂之。 “求，尔何如？”对曰：“方六七十，如五六十，求也为之，比及三年，可使足民。如其礼乐，以俟君子。”“赤，尔何如？”对曰：“非曰能之，愿学焉。宗庙之事，如会同，端章甫，愿为小相焉。”“点，尔何如？”鼓瑟希，铿尔，舍瑟而作，对曰：“异乎三子者之撰。”子曰：“何伤乎？亦各言其志也。”曰：“莫春者，春服既成，冠者五六人，童子六七人，浴乎沂，风乎舞雩 ，咏而归。”夫子喟然叹曰：“吾与点也！”三子者出，曾皙后。曾皙曰：“夫三子者之言何如？”子曰：“亦各言其志也已矣。”曰：“夫子何哂由也？”曰：“为国以礼。其言不让，是故哂之。”唯求则非邦也与？”“安见方六七十如五六十而非邦也者？”“唯赤则非邦也与？”“宗庙会同，非诸侯而何？赤也为之小，孰能为之大？”
子路、曾皙、冉有、公西华四个人陪孔子坐着。孔子说：“我年龄比你们大一些，不要因为我年长而不敢说。你们平时总说：‘没有人了解我呀！’假如有人了解你们，那你们要怎样去做呢？”子路赶忙回答：“一个拥有一千辆兵车的国家，夹在大国中间，常常受到别的国家侵犯，加上国内又闹饥荒，让我去治理，只要三年，就可以使人们勇敢善战，而且懂得礼仪。”孔子听了，微微一笑。孔子又问：“冉求，你怎么样呢？”冉求答道：国土有六七十里或五六十里见方的国家，让我去治理，三年以后，就可以使百姓饱暖。至于这个国家的礼乐教化，就要等君子来施行了。”孔子又问：“公西赤，你怎么样？”公西赤答道：“我不敢说能做到，而是愿意学习。在宗庙祭祀的活动中，或者在同别国的盟会中，我愿意穿着礼服，戴着礼帽，做一个小小的赞礼人。”孔子又问：“曾点，你怎么样呢？”这时曾点弹瑟的声音逐渐放慢，接着“铿”的一声，离开瑟站起来，回答说：“我想的和他们三位说的不一样。”孔子说：“那有什么关系呢？也就是各人讲自己的志向而已。” 曾皙说：“暮春三月，已经穿上了春天的衣服，我和五六位成年人，六七个少年，去沂河里洗洗澡，在舞雩台上吹吹风，一路唱着歌走回来。”孔子长叹一声说： “我是赞成曾皙的想法的。”子路、冉有、公西华三个人的都出去了，曾皙后走。他问孔子说：“他们三人的话怎么样？”孔子说：“也就是各自谈谈自己的志向罢了。”曾皙说：“夫子为什么要笑仲由呢？”孔子说：“治理国家要讲礼让，可是他说话一点也不谦让，所以我笑他。”曾皙又问：“那么是不是冉求讲的不是治理国家呢？”孔子说：“哪里见得六七十里或五六十里见方的地方就不是国家呢？”曾皙又问：”公西赤讲的不是治理国家吗？”孔子说：“宗庙祭祀和诸侯会盟，这不是诸侯的事又是什么？像赤这样的人如果只能做一个小相，那谁又能做大相呢？”